(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)
The Miami Herald reported on July 5, 1987:
- Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North and the Federal Emergency Management Agency ... had drafted a contingency plan providing for the suspension of the Constitution, the imposition of martial law, and the appointment of military commanders to head state and local governments and to detain dissidents and Central American refugees in the event of a national crisis.
According to scholar Diana Reynolds:
- The Rex-84 Alpha Explan (Readiness Exercise 1984, Exercise Plan; otherwise known as a continuity of government plan), indicates that FEMA in association with 34 other federal civil departments and agencies, along with other NATO nations, conducted a civil readiness exercise during April 5-13, 1984. It was conducted in coordination and simultaneously with a Joint Chiefs exercise, Night Train 84, a worldwide military command post exercise (including Continental U.S. Forces or CONUS) based on multi-emergency scenarios operating both abroad and at home. In the combined exercise, Rex-84 Bravo, FEMA and DOD led the other federal agencies and departments, including the Central Intelligence Agency, the Secret Service, the Treasury, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and the Veterans Administration through a gaming exercise to test military assistance in civil defense.
- The exercise anticipated civil disturbances, major demonstrations and strikes that would affect continuity of government and/or resource mobilization. To fight subversive activities, there was authorization for the military to implement government ordered movements of civilian populations at state and regional levels, the arrest of certain unidentified segments of the population, and the imposition of martial law. 
Rex-84 was written by Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North, who was both the NSC White House Aide and NSC liason to FEMA, and John Brinkerhoff, the deputy director of "national preparedness" programs for FEMA. They patterned the plan on a 1970 report written by FEMA chief Louis Giuffrida, at the Army War College, which proposed the detention of up to 21 million "American Negroes", if there were a black militant uprising in the United States.
Initial public reports
Existence of a master military contingency plan, "Garden Plot" and a similar earlier exercise, "Lantern Spike" were originally revealed by journalist Ron Ridenhour, who summarized his findings in "Garden Plot and the New Action Army."
Exercises similar to Rex 84 happen regularly. Plans for roundups of large numbers of persons in the United States in times of crisis are constructed during periods of increased political repression such as the Palmer Raids and the McCarthy Era.
For example, from 1967 to 1971 the FBI kept a list of over 100,000 persons to be rounded up as subversive, dubbed the "ADEX" list. This list contained many labor leaders, scholars, and public figures of the time.
In 2008, for the first time an active military unit has been given a dedicated assignment stateside for civil unrest containment. It is assigned to Northcom, a joint command established in 2002 to provide command and control for federal homeland defense efforts and coordinate defense support of civil authorities.
The basic facts about Rex 84 and other contingency planning readiness exercisesand the potential threat they pose to civil liberties if fully implemented in a real operationare taken seriously by scholars and civil libertarians.
- ^ Cited by David Thoreen: The President's Emergency War Powers And The Erosion Of Civil Liberties In Pynchon's Vineland. In: Oklahoma City University Law Review. 24, No. 3, 1999, footnote 117
- ^ Reynolds, 
- ^ Smith, Christian (1996) (in English). Resisting Reagan: the U.S. Central America peace movement. University of Chicago Press. pp. 310. ISBN 9780226763361. http://books.google.com/books?id=JgcalG3UwWAC&pg=RA4-PA310&dq=rex-84&ei=kR56S8XaMoeUkASp8vHvBA&cd=1#v=onepage&q=rex-84&f=false.
- ^ Chip Berlet: The Right-Wing Roots of Sheehan's "Secret Team" Theory. In: Right Woos Left. 1990/1999
- ^ Ridenhour, Ron (1975). "Garden Plot and the New Action Army". CounterSpy.
- ^ Diana Reynolds, "The Rise of the National Security State: FEMA and the NSC," CovertAction Information Bulletin, issue #33 (Winter 1990).
- ^ Donner, Frank (1980). The Age of Surveillance: The Aims & Methods of America's Political Intelligence System. New York: Alfred Knopf. pp. 166.
- ^ Cavallaro, Gina; "Brigade homeland tours start Oct. 1"; Army Times, online, Monday Sep 8, 2008 
- ^ Berlet and Reynolds
- "U.S. Can Confine Citizens Without Charges, Court Rules," Jerry Markon, Washington Post, September 10, 2005; Page A01
- "Reagan Aides and the 'Secret' Government," Alfonso Chardy, Miami Herald, July 5, 1987. Also available as photoscans in PDF format here.
- "Martial Law Concerns," Congressman Jim McDermott, House of Representatives, March 11, 2003
- Information about Operation Garden Plot, the larger operation of which Rex 84 was a part
- "Foundations are in place for martial law in the US," Ritt Goldstein, Sydney Morning Herald, July 27, 2002
- "The Model State Emergency Health Powers Act: An Assault on Civil Liberties in the Name of Homeland Security," Sue Blevins, Heritage Foundation Lecture #748, June 10, 2002
- "325,000 Names on Terrorism List, Rights Groups Say Database May Include Innocent People," Walter Pincus and Dan Eggen, The Washington Post, Wednesday, February 15, 2006; Page A01
- Chip Berlet, Right Woos Left, Discussion of Rex 84 conspiracy theories.